Student z VUT v Brně vyrobil protetické oko 3D tiskem

Pro protetiky není jednoduchým úkolem vytvořit umělé oči jako náhradu pro zrakově postižené tak, aby působily realistickým dojmem. Výroba takových protéz je stále velkou výzvou, kterou ocení mnoho postižených. Jeden z revolučních nápadů, jak vyrobit oční protézu napadl českého zrakově postiženého studenta Ondřeje Vocílka z Vysokého učení technického v Brně, který zvolil cestu 3D tiskem technologií PolyJet na 3D tiskárně Stratasys J750. S realizací mu pomohla společnost MCAE Systems.

Za vznikem tohoto zajímavého projektu stojí přednáška o technologiích 3D tisku na Fakultě strojního inženýrství Vysokého technického učení technického v Brně, která studenta inspirovala natolik, že začal přemýšlet o jejím využití při výrobě oftalmologických protéz a jak by je bylo možné co nejvíce přizpůsobit potřebám pacientů. Tato myšlenka byla zrodem tématu pro bakalářskou práci a není se čemu divit, aditivní výroba je pro tyto účely ideálním řešením.

Standardní způsob výroby očních protéz se provádí ručně ze skla či akrylátu, což se projeví na estetickém dojmu celé protézy. Tvar a provedení závisí zejména na zkušenostech a šikovnosti protetika. S praktického pohledu je nejnáročnější ruční výroba duhovky, protože se musí co nejvíce podobat zdravému oku pacienta. Dosáhnout toho konvenčním způsobem není jednoduché.

Ondřej se ve své práci zabývá výrobou prototypu oční protézy pomocí 3D tisku na bázi modelu získaného skenováním své ručně vyrobené starší protézy z PMMA (akrylátové sklo neboli plexisklo). Model modifikoval v programu 3ds Max 2017 a tímto postupem bylo vymodelováno jádro protézy s texturou, která byla vytvořena z fotografie oka. Vytištěné jádro oční protézy bylo dále zalito čirým akrylátem, aby se vytvořil zdravotně nezávadný povrch.

Modifikaci modelu provedl Ondřej Vocílka ve 3ds Studio Max. Vizualizace: Ondřej Vocílka

Samotná výroba jádra náhrady byla realizována na 3D tiskárně Stratasys J750, jejíž technologický postup výroby vychází z technologie PolyJet. Jedná se o přesný 3D tisk modelů nanášením fotopolymeru a jeho vytvrzováním UV zářením. Tato 3D tiskárna je díky svým možnostem ideální pro výrobu prototypů, na které je kladený velký důraz z hlediska kvality povrchu a fotorealistických barev. V této části sehrála významnou roli společnost MCAE Systems, která v Česku a na Slovensku zastupuje společnost Stratasys.

3D tiskárna Stratasys J750 umožňuje míchat a kombinovat plnobarevné přechody spolu s nebývalým rozsahem volby materiálů. Nabízí výběr z více než 360 tisíc různých barevných odstínů a mnoho materiálových vlastností – od tuhých po pružné nebo od neprůhledných po průhledné. Tato tiskárna je dosud jediná na světě, která zhotovuje plnobarevné, multimateriálové prototypy a díly v rámci jedné tiskové úlohy, což výrazně urychluje tvorbu realistických modelů, prototypů a dílů pro prakticky libovolné aplikační potřeby včetně aplikací v oblasti medicíny.

Během výroby se projevily vynikající vlastnosti tiskárny zejména při 3D tisku duhovky. Stále ale chybělo jemné oční žilkování a nebyla přidána ani žádná povrchová úprava, která by napodobila lesk skutečného lidského oka. Tyto problémy Ondřej vyřešil přidáním vyčesané červené bavlny a vrstvy plexiskla na povrch prototypu, podobně jako se to řeší u běžných akrylových protéz.

Za fotorealistickým vzhledem protézy stojí 3D tiskárna Stratasys J750 s technologií PolyJet. Foto: Ondřej Vocílka

Celý proces 3D tisku jádra oční protézy trvá přibližně hodinu a půl, zatímco výroba klasické akrylové protézy trvá zhruba osm hodin. Skleněná protéza může být pro pacienta připravena do dvou hodin. V České republice se standardní cena oční protézy pohybuje v rozmezí od 2 do 3 tisíc korun, zatímco v Anglii tato částka činí v přepočtu až 90 tisíc korun. Výrobní náklady na tisk jádra prototypu nepřesahují částku 850 korun. Pokud do kalkulace zahrneme práce zahrnující aplikaci povrchové vrstvy, cena protézy je pak srovnatelná s ruční výrobou.

3D tištěná protéza navržená Ondřejem je zatím jen základní, jednoduchý prototyp, který neprošel certifikací ani žádnými zdravotními testy. Úkolem bylo vybrat a ověřit navrženou technologii výroby, která se osvědčila. V současné době student pracuje na vývoji efektivnějšího způsobu výroby. Cílem projektu je, aby byla celá protéza vyrobená 3D tiskem s minimálními náklady. Jednou z dalších možných výhod, na kterou student v práci poukazuje je, že lze ukládat modely do databáze protéz. Po skončení životnosti tak lze jednoduše protézu znovu vytisknout na 3D tiskárně a poslat pacientovi.

Zdroj: MCAE Systems

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