Siemens hledá cesty, jak z oceánů dostat plastový odpad

Podle odhadů odborníků brázdí našimi oceány přes 150 milionů tun plastového odpadu a dosud se nenašlo východisko, jak jej z vody vytáhnout – a to nejlépe prostřednictvím soběstačného a ziskového obchodního modelu. 

Lidská populace je bezohledná, neváží si toho, co nám příroda nadělila a plastový odpad v oceánech je výsledkem nezodpovědného jednání zejména východních zemí. S ohledem na tuto situaci se však najdou nadšenci z řad jednotlivců, neziskových organizací i firem, kteří považují čistý oceán za samozřejmost a věnují této činnosti finanční prostředky i volný čas, aby se jim podařilo odvrátit a pozastavit současný stav, který již brzy nepůjde vrátit do stavu původního. Vzhledem k tomu, že se naše vydavatelství zaměřuje na strojírenství, rozhodli jsme se podpořit tuto aktivitu prezentací zajímavou technologií, kterou vyvíjí společnost Siemens.

Plastový odpad v oceánech ohrožuje přirozené prostředí pro výskyt mořských rostli a živočichů. Za ambiciózními nápady, jak odpad z oceánů odstranit, stojí neziskové organizace, start-upy i světové společnosti. V současné době se zkoušejí prototypy celé řady sběrných zařízení, jako je například katamarán využívající ke shromažďování odpadků z moře speciální síť. V rámci nizozemského projektu The Ocean Cleanup byl vyvinut plovoucí přístroj, který sbírá odpad nesený oceánskými proudy. Některé projekty vypadají velmi slibně, zatím však neexistuje žádný obchodní model, který by byl ziskový nebo alespoň soběstačný.

V únoru byl ve Španělsku nalezený mladý mrtvý vorvaň. Ve střevech měl 29 kilogramů odpadů tvořený lany, sítěmi, plastovými taškami a barely

V červnu byla v Thajsku nalezena uhynulá velryba. V žaludku bylo nalezeno 80 plastových pytlů. Foto: Bernd Wüstneck/dpa-Zentralbild/dpa

Společnost Siemens má firemní crowfundingový program Quickstarter, prostřednictvím kterého hledá netradiční nápady, cesty a technologie, jak z oceánů odstranit plastový odpad. Strategický cíl se zaměřuje na tři oblasti: najít místa, kde plastový odpad vyskytuje, shromáždit ho a následně jej zpracovat nebo zrecyklovat. Pilotním projektem je Cleaning the Ocean Is Our Business, za kterým stojí Felix Fisher, Ingo Bernsdorf a Florian Ansgar Jäger ze Siemens Corporate Technology.

Za pilotním projektem pro čisté oceány ve společnosti Siemens stojí trojice nadšenců Felix Fisher, Ingo Bernsdorf a Florian Ansgar Jäger. Foto: Siemens

Jejich představa spočívá v kontejnerovém řešení, které by spalovalo nerecyklovatelný plastový odpad a v němž by turbíny a zplyňovací zařízení proměňovaly výsledný produkt v elektrickou energii, jejíž význam bude do budoucna narůstat. Využívaly by jej hlavně ostrovy v jihovýchodní Asii, které jsou největším producenty odpadu v oceánech z důvodu nedostatku recyklačních zařízení. V těchto zemích navíc elektřinu často vyrábějí dieselovými generátory, které nejsou šetrné k životnímu prostředí a často jsou ostrovy odkázány na dovozu paliva. Ostrovy by tak mohly využívat buď odpad, který každým dne v obrovském množství zaplavuje jejich pobřeží, nebo vlastní odpad, který na ostrovech vyprodukují.

Nápadům a iniciativě se meze nekladou – s učenlivostí k recyklaci začali v Istanbulu. Za 28 plastových láhví, které vrátíte do chytrých kontejnerů, si koupíte jízdenku pro městskou dopravu, která by jinak stála 2,6 turecké liry (asi 10 korun). Prvních 25 automatů funguje již od podzimu. Foto: Shutterstock

Východiskem je shromáždit obrovské množství odpadu, které se pohybují daleko v mezinárodních vodách. O tento nápad a jeho řešení se dělí nejen odborníci ze Siemensu, ale další významné německé společnosti, které působí mj. v oblasti stavby lodí. Ideálním řešením by byla loď, která by přeměnila odpad v energii pro svůj vlastní chod, který by byl z hlediska oxidu uhličitého neutrální. Na zbývající odpad by byla použita pyrolýza, během níž by byl tento odpad přeměněn na olej, který by mohl být dodáván dalším lodím jako palivo. Nápady jsou diskutovány i s odborníky z vídeňské divize Siemens Power and Gas. Debaty se vedou okolo dalších alternativních způsobů využití plastového odpadu k výrobě energie nebo například k odsolování mořské vody.

Želva omotaná odpadem nemá v oceánech mnoho šanci na přežití. S omezeným pohybem je snadnou potravou predátorů. Za vším stojí lidská nezodpovědnost. Foto: Siemens

Na filipínské pláži se v únoru objevila „mrtvá“ velryba plná plastového odpadu. Dílo vzniklo za pomocí kreativních nadšenců, kteří chtěli upozornit na znečištění oceánů plasty a současnou realitu dnešních oceánů. Foto: Dentsu Jayme Syfu

Právě v květnu se konal na Filipínských ostrovech summit ASEAN a dobrovolníci upoutali replikou mrtvé velryby z plastů environmentálních odborníků, aby začali otázku znečištěného oceánu řešit. Cílem bylo, aby velryba nesla hluboké poselství.

Dílo v podobě plastového odpadu v oceánech je činem nezodpovědného chování lidské populace. Hlavním krokem je odstranit plastový odpad z oceánů a pokusit se vrátit situaci do původního stavu než bude pozdě. Podstatou je však eliminovat příčinu, naučit ty, kteří oceány znečišťují a to recyklováním odpadů. Nutné je podpořit vývoj ambiciózních projektů jednotlivců, neziskových organizací, start-upů a společností, které povedou k soběstačnosti nebo dílčí ziskovosti.

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